Shotgun microphones are the most highly directional of simple first-order unidirectional types. At low frequencies, they have the classic polar response of a hypercardioid, while at medium and higher frequencies an interference tube gives them an increased forward response. This is achieved by a process of cancellation of off-axis waves entering the longitudinal array of slots. A consequence of this technique is the presence of some rear lobes that vary in level and angle with frequency and can cause some coloration effects. Due to the narrowness of their forward sensitivity, shotgun microphones are commonly used on television and film sets, in stadiums, and for field recording of wildlife.